How do I get to Carnegie Hall?
Removing any of the first four made little significant difference to the learning outcome and attitudes of the tested students. It would seem, therefore, that Gagne. Mager et al were on shaky ground in recommending objectives at the start of every programme. Similarly with other supplementary elements.
Practice is the essential component
Removing ‘practice’, however, had a significant lowing effect on learning and attitudes. This snappy piece confirms my suspicions about most courses suffering from cognitive overload through the additive effect of too many supposedly beneficial, instructional elements. This cacophony of elements can confuse rather than clarify content.
So how do you get to Carnegie Hall?
Practice, practice, practice.The impact of instructional elements in computer-based instruction, Martin. Klein and Sullivan (British Journal of Educational Technology). Thanks to Nick Rushby for a glimpse at this research in its pre-published form.